The earlier alignment of the Papacy with the Byzantine Empire has been replaced by one with the Franks, who were strong enough to remove the Lombard threat for good. The Pope received land in central Italy that would become the Papal States, which formalized the dual nature of the Papacy as both a religious leader and a secular one for the next thousand years or so, tempting Popes to muddle church matters with political ones. Although the Franks rule supreme, already the signs are there of the future struggle between the Papacy and the German Holy Roman Emperors that would pop up in the future.
Meanwhile, the political exclusion of the Byzantines fueled the future religious separation into the Eastern Orthodox church that would be finalized in a few hundred years.
I always like reading this series even more so as I become more familiar with the period. The breakup of Rome has become increasingly interesting to me in recent years. I wonder if there is a similar overview of the next five hundred years available.
- The Frankish Invasion – Thomas Hodgkin (kilobooks.wordpress.com)
- The Lombard Kingdom – Thomas Hodgkin (kilobooks.wordpress.com)
- The Lombard Invasion – Thomas Hodgkin (kilobooks.wordpress.com)